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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 28  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 79-83

Epidemiological study of burn patients admitted in tertiary care hospital in India and associated risk factors: A retrospective observational review

Department of Plastic Surgery, Pt. Bhagwat Dayal Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Krittika Aggarwal
Department of Plastic Surgery, Pt. Bhagwat Dayal Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak - 124 001, Haryana
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijb.ijb_10_20

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Introduction: Burn injuries constitute a major part of traumatic injuries and most commonly are accidental. They have devastating mental and functional sequelae apart from increased chances of mortality. Knowledge about the prognosis of various burn injuries and the risk factors leading to complications helps treat them. This study was undertaken to document the epidemiological data of burn patients admitted in Pt BD Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India, from January 2019 to December 2019. Materials and Methods: Demographic details including age, sex, cause and nature of injury, associated comorbidities, depth and percentage of body area involved, involvement of the face and suspected inhalation injury, survival, period of survival, and mortality rate were recorded. For the pediatric population, weight for age was taken as an indicator for nutrition. Patients who left against medical advice were excluded from the study. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Burn injuries were most common in the age group of 21–60 years. Males were more commonly injured. Thermal injuries were most common (91%), followed by electric burns. Accidental burns were 88%, in 9% alleged history of suicide, and in rest, homicide was suspected. Out of 104 pediatric patients, 50% were undernourished. The mortality among undernourished patients had the odd's ratio of 8.5. The survival rate was 81% overall. It was noted that burns more than 40% total body surface area (TBSA) involvement had mortality of 56.25% and 9.44% in < 40% TBSA involvement (odds ratio 5.95). Face involvement for suspected inhalation injury had increased risk of mortality (odd's ratio 1.68). The most common cause of death was multi-organ dysfunction syndrome from sepsis within 10 days in 78% of cases. Among survivors, the duration of stay was dependent on the TBSA involvement. Conclusion: Pediatric age group, inhalation injury, undernutrition, and thromboembolism are factors which contribute to increased mortality, apart from large TBSA involvement. Initial 10 days need careful monitoring to decrease mortality and initiate early treatment. Limitation: This study has been conducted in a tertiary care hospital. Only referred cases needing hospital care were included in this study. Hence, the data represent only a part of demographic data sustaining burn injuries.

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